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Prime Journal of Microbiology Research

 Prime Journal of Microbiology Research | ISSN: 2251-127X

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Prime Journal of Microbiology Research

ISSN: 2251-127X. Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 183-189

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Test performance and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among women in Western Kenya



Rosemary A. Okuku1,2, Christine Bii 4, Ernest Makohka3, Joseph Gikunji2, and Musa Otieno Ngayo4



1Field Epidemiology Laboratory Training Programme, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

2Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute

3Center for Disease Control, Nairobi, Kenya

4Centre of Microbiology and Research, Nairobi, Kenya, Medical Research Institute: (CMR-KEMRI) Kenyatta National Hospital Complex off Ngong Road, P.O. Box 19464 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya.


 Accepted date

7th October, 2015



Okuku RA, Bii C, Makohka E, Gikunji J, Otieno M (2016). Test performance and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among women in Western Kenya. Prim. J. Microbiol. Res. 4(1): 183-189


Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common lower genital tract infection among women, is associated with adverse birth outcomes and increased risk of HIV/STD. BV, is by far most common and yet under-diagnosed among women in sub-Saharan Africa. With poor laboratory infrastructure and lack of skilled personnel, evaluating BV associated factors and point-of-care diagnostic tests are important for prevention and management in Kenya. Vaginal swabs from 227 women (18 years or older) attending Kakamega County Referral Hospital (KCRH) in Western Kenya were tested for BV using Quickvue Advance pH and Amines test, Amselís and Nugentís criteria as the gold standard. Structured interviews gathered information on factors associated with BV among this population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of tests in this population with a high prevalence of BV (39%; 95% CI 32.5 Ė 45.9 by Nugent) were Amsel: 69.2%, 87.7%, 79.8% and 78.3% respectively, and Quickvue: 56.4%, 86.1%, 75.5% and 72.1% respectively. Evaluating the performance of QuickVue test against Amsel criteria, the standard method for clinical diagnosis; offered no improvement in sensitivity 55.1%, specificity 82.4% and NPV 62.3% but improved the PPV 77.7% over when compared to Nugentís score. Occupation, condom use, lower abdominal pain, milky vaginal discharge and yeast infection were associated with BV infection. Sexual behavior contributes to high prevalence of BV among women of Western Kenya. The QuickVue test could not be recommended as either a stand-alone assay or as a confirmatory test for BV in this population.

Key words:
Bacterial vaginosis, test performance, correlates, women of reproductive age, Western Kenya.

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Okuku RA
Bii C
Makohka E
Gikunji J
Otieno M



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