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Organization of the Manuscript

Manuscripts must be written in English. Multiple-part papers are discouraged. Although it is recognized that this arrangement is sometimes necessary, authors will often be asked to collapse multiple papers into a single manuscript.

Manuscripts must include the sections listed below in the order they are presented. All word limits include citations. The entire text should be double-spaced. Submitting an incomplete manuscript or a manuscript that does not adhere to the word limits will cause a delay in review.

Brief Communications are subject to the same word restrictions, with the additional requirement that the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion references and figure legends cannot exceed 4500 words.


Title Page

The first page of the manuscript should be a title page with the following:

  • Journal Section (Cellular & Molecular, Neurobiology of Disease, Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive, or Development/Plasticity/Repair)

  • Title

  • Abbreviated title

  • Authors and author addresses

  • Corresponding author with complete address, including an email address

Acknowledgements should be used to note intellectual, technical or other assistance that does not warrant authorship as well as to identify all funding sources. Individuals should be informed before the publication of any such acknowledgements and given the opportunity to decline the recognition. Promotional statements are not permitted.


Abstract (250 words maximum, including citations)

The abstract should be clearly written and readily comprehensible. It should provide a concise summary of the objectives, methodology (including the species studied), key results, and major conclusions of the study. It should be written in complete sentences, without subheadings.


Introduction (450 words maximum, including citations)

The Introduction should briefly indicate the objectives of the study and provide enough background information to clarify why the study was undertaken and what hypotheses were tested.


Materials and Methods

Materials and methods section should be brief but sufficient to enable other investigators to repeat the research. Reference should be made to published procedures wherever possible; this applies to the original description and pertinent published modifications. The sex of subjects should be stated. All companies from which materials were obtained should be listed. If materials were obtained from an individual, an affiliation for that individual should be listed.

None of the Materials and Methods may be placed in Supplemental Materials.



The result section should present clearly the experimental findings. Only results essential to establish the main points of the work should be included. Numerical data should be analyzed using appropriate statistical tests.


Discussion (1000 words maximum, including citations)

Discussion section should be concise and must include a brief statement of the principal findings, a discussion of the validity of the observations, a discussion of the findings in light of other published work dealing with the same or closely related subjects, and a statement of the possible significance of the work.



Casey DP, Martin A, Julie E, Alback GB (1984). Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recordings from cells and cell free membrane patches. Pflugers Arch 391:85-100.
Brivial AL, Hayles AN (1952). The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo. J Physiol (Lond) 116:473-496.



Text Citation: All tables must be numbered independently of figures, multimedia and 3D models and cited at the relevant point in the manuscript text, e.g. "Table 1", "Table 2", etc.

Title: A title should appear above the table.

Legends: A legend for each table must be included in the manuscript document after the reference list. Legends should include sufficient detail to be intelligible without reference to the text. Legends must define all symbols and include essential information, such as scale bar dimensions.



Text Citation: Figures must be numbered independently of tables, multimedia, and 3D models and cited at the relevant point in the manuscript text, e.g. "Figure 1", "Figure 2", etc.

Title: A title should be part of the legend and not lettered onto the figure.

Legends: A legend must be included in the manuscript document after the reference list. Legends should include sufficient detail to be intelligible without reference to the text. Legends must define all symbols and include essential information, such as scale bar dimensions. Rather than stating "See text," legends should be more specific; for example, "See Results".

Size: Figures must be submitted at the size they are to appear in BAM. They should be the smallest size that will convey the essential scientific information, and sized to 1column (8.5 cm), 1.5 columns (11.6 cm) or 2 columns (17.6 cm).


Initial Submission – figures may be included in a single PDF file that contains the manuscript and all tables and figures.

Revised Submission - Figures must be submitted only as separate files in TIFF or EPS format.

Color figures should be in RGB format and supplied at a minimum of 300 dpi.


Brief Communications: Brief Communications are short research articles intended to present exciting findings that will have a major impact in the journal. Brief Communications are limited to 3,500 words, including the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, references and figure legends. It is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus.

Commentary: may occasionally be published consisting of nonempirical reports, theoretical notes, or criticism on topics pertinent to the journal's concerns.

Proofs and Reprints: Electronic proofs of the manuscript will be sent to the corresponding author as a PDF file.  Page proofs are regarded to be the final version of the manuscript. Authors will have free electronic access to the full text (in both HTML and PDF) of the article which can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles.

Handling Fee: Authors are required to pay a $300 handling fee for the publication of their manuscript.  Although Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial office waive some of the handling fee under special circumstances (not more than 10%).


Effects of free education on enhancing access to primary education in Tanzania: A case of Newala District, Mtwara Region

Felister L. Mberege, Fred A. Rwechungura, and Pius S. Chaya


Tanzania has attempted to increase access to education at various levels of education systems. Despite all these efforts there are a lot of challenges which need to be address to enhance progress in the education sector. This study is one amongst many with the objective of assessing the effects of free education on enhancing access to primary education in Tanzania. The study used logic model to explain the households’ decision to enrol their children into primary school under free education policy. The results revealed that free education policy has succeeded both in increasing enrolment and in reducing delays in entering to school because more pupils have been enrolled at the legal school entry age of 5-7 year or less. Besides, free education has not succeeded in reducing dropouts because after implementation of free education policy the surprising outcome is that the percentage of dropouts from school increased.


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The Moderating Influence of CSR in the Relationship Between Financial Leverage and Performance of Listed Companies at the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE)

John Karori Nyamiobo and Dr. Headmound Okari Isoe


This study examined the moderating effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on the relationship between financial leverage and Performance of listed firms at the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The research was designed to use quantitative research method utilizing data collected from companies listed at the NSE. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data from finance officers of companies listed at NSE. The data collected was analysed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The study carried out the analysis of the data with the help of statistical packages including SPSS and MS-Excel.


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Test performance and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among women in Western Kenya

Rosemary A. Okuku, Christine Bii, Ernest Makohka, Joseph Gikunji, and Musa Otieno Ngayo


Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common lower genital tract infection among women, is associated with adverse birth outcomes and increased risk of HIV/STD. BV, is by far most common and yet under-diagnosed among women in sub-Saharan Africa. With poor laboratory infrastructure and lack of skilled personnel, evaluating BV associated factors and point-of-care diagnostic tests are important for prevention and management in Kenya. Vaginal swabs from 227 women (18 years or older) attending Kakamega County Referral Hospital (KCRH) in Western Kenya were tested for BV using Quickvue Advance pH and Amines test, Amsel’s and Nugent’s criteria as the gold standard. Structured interviews gathered information on factors associated with BV among this population.


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